ArticleWhat is GTO in Poker?

This article dives deep into the world of GTO, explaining its core principles and how they can be applied to elevate your poker game using our platform.

By Maciej Dziadyk | 16 May 2024
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Have you ever wondered about the perfect way to play a hand in poker? While there’s no guaranteed formula for success, understanding Game Theory Optimal (GTO) play can significantly enhance your poker strategy. This article dives deep into the world of GTO, explaining its core principles and how they can be applied to elevate your poker game using our platform.

What is GTO?

Game Theory Optimal (GTO) refers to a strategic approach in poker that aims to achieve an unexploitable playing style, minimising long-term losses against any opponent, regardless of their skill level. Imagine a scenario where both you and your opponent are playing flawlessly, adhering strictly to GTO principles. In this theoretical situation, neither player has an edge over the other. The outcome in the long run would depend solely on factors like random card distribution and pot size. This is the ultimate goal of GTO: to make your play so unpredictable and balanced that opponents can’t consistently exploit your tendencies and take your money.

Here’s a deeper dive into the core principles that underpin GTO:

  • Nash Equilibrium: This concept, named after mathematician John Nash, forms the foundation of GTO. A Nash equilibrium exists when no player has an incentive to deviate from their strategy because any deviation would be met with a counter-strategy from the opponent, resulting in a worse outcome. In simpler terms, GTO dictates playing in a way that prevents your opponent from consistently predicting your actions based on your past behaviour.
  • Mixed Strategies: A key element of GTO play is the concept of mixed strategies. This means incorporating randomness into your decisions by using a variety of actions (betting, calling, and folding) with specific frequencies, even for similar hand strengths in certain situations. For instance, with a strong hand pre-flop, a GTO approach might involve raising some of the time, calling other times, and even occasionally folding (as a bluff) to prevent opponents from pinpointing your hand strength based solely on your pre-flop action.

A balanced strategy involves varying decision frequencies. For instance, with Ah8h, you would check 70% of the time, bet 20% of the pot 12% of the time, and bet 50% of the pot 16% of the time.

  • Balanced Ranges: GTO emphasises the importance of balanced ranges, which refers to having a well-distributed selection of hands you choose to play from each position at the table. This ensures that your pre-flop betting patterns don’t give away information about the strength of your hand. For example, a GTO approach might involve raising with strong hands a certain percentage of the time but also incorporating weaker hands and bluffs into your preflop raising range at a specific frequency.

Holding JJ on a J86 rainbow board, GTO recommends checking with the top set about 20% of the time to maintain a balanced range. This strategy aims to strengthen your checking range, ensuring it includes sufficiently strong hands. Without such hands, your opponent might frequently exploit your checks by aggressively attacking.

How does GTO apply in poker?

While achieving perfect GTO play is practically impossible due to factors like incomplete information and human emotions, understanding its core principles can significantly improve your decision-making process. Here’s how GTO can be applied in various poker scenarios:

Preflop Play

GTO suggests a balanced preflop betting strategy involving raising, calling, and folding with the right frequencies depending on your hand strength and position at the table. This prevents opponents from reading your hand based on your preflop actions alone.

In our database you can find over a million of GTO preflop poker charts.

When the early position (EP) opens with a 2 bb (20 bb stack size) and you are on the button, GTO principles dictate implementing the board coverage concept. By calling, you ensure the potential for a top pair or overpair on every board. It’s crucial to avoid situations where opponents can predict that your best top pair on an Axx board is A5, as this allows them to exploit you with aggressive betting. Maintaining a balanced range prevents this and compels your opponent to also balance their range.

Postflop Play

GTO emphasises making decisions based on pot odds, outs, and implied odds rather than simply reacting to the strength of your hand. This unpredictable style makes it difficult for opponents to exploit your tendencies.

Incorporating GTO principles into your poker strategy offers several advantages:

  • Reduces Long-Term Losses: By making yourself unexploitable, you minimise losses against opponents of all skill levels.
  • Improves Decision Making: Focusing on factors like pot odds and outs encourages a more calculated approach to the game.

However, it’s important to acknowledge the limitations of GTO:

  • Highly Theoretical: Achieving perfect GTO play is unrealistic due to factors like reading opponents and adapting to unforeseen situations. High stakes online poker players use RNG (random number generator) to help themselves keep mixing up the ranges.
  • Computationally Complex: GTO calculations for every possible scenario are impractical. GTO uses a mixed frequency everywhere, and indeed, it matters what action you choose during the game. In a vacuum, it doesn’t matter—but again, the solver has to play a range, not each hand in a vacuum. Mixing is necessary for the GTO strategy to be unbeatable.

How does the Poker Academy use GTO to make you a better player?

  1. Deep Dive with GTO Scenarios: Our comprehensive database of pre-defined scenarios provides a valuable learning ground. By exploring these situations, you gain a deeper understanding of core poker concepts like pot odds, implied odds, and optimal ranges. This immersive learning environment allows you to analyse various strategic approaches and see how they play out in different situations.
  2. Refine Your Skills with the GTO Trainer: Go beyond theory with our interactive GTO Trainer. This advanced tool pits you against a GTO-based opponent, allowing you to identify areas for improvement in your own strategy.  The trainer highlights discrepancies between your decisions and optimal GTO plays, pinpointing your “leaks” and guiding you towards more strategic decision-making.
  3. Gain GTO fundamentals with the AI Postflop Solver: To bridge the gap between amateur and professional poker play, mastering postflop decision-making is crucial. Our Postflop Solver is designed to be your ultimate guide, offering a structured approach to learning the essentials of poker and advancing your strategies to maximise profits. After you’re knocked out of a tournament, input the scenario into our solver to see how a GTO engine would have played the hand. For a more tailored approach, exploit your opponent’s tendencies by using nodelocking to adjust ranges and discover the optimal strategy for specific situations. GTO principles, once thought exclusive to seasoned players, are now accessible to beginners, emphasising the importance of postflop play—a critical phase in any poker hand—to develop a robust foundation in poker fundamentals.


Understanding GTO equips you with a powerful strategic framework to elevate your poker game. While mastering GTO is a continuous process, focusing on its core principles will make you a more unpredictable and adaptable player at the table. Remember, the GTO serves as a strategic roadmap, not a guaranteed path to victory. Real-world poker involves factors beyond GTO’s theoretical framework. However, by embracing its core principles, you’ll become a more well-rounded player capable of adapting, exploiting weaknesses, and making informed decisions at the table. So, shuffle up and deal—let us be your guide on this journey!

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